In today’s times, an online presence makes one vulnerable to unprecedented cyber-attacks and a variety of malicious attacks on both small and large scales. On a daily basis, we encounter countless incidents of data breaches, information disclosure, financial theft, and failing businesses. One doesn’t need to be too tech-savvy to understand basic hacking terminologies which may one day render useful in case of a cyber attack.
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As non-technical users of online services do not know much about hacking terminologies and techniques. Most non-tech people believe that simply installing an anti-virus is adequate to keep their online activities safe. However, with an increasing number of security measures, hackers are constantly innovating ways to circumvent security practices. Thus it is advised to acquaint oneself with a basic glossary of hacking terminologies. Staying naive can possibly cost you a lot in case of a cyber attack. Following are some of the essential hacking world terminologies to know in case your website gets hacked
Hacking terms & their meanings
Phishing is one of the most common hacking terminology used by security people. Phishing is a technique that tricks users into revealing sensitive information (like usernames, passwords, or credit card details) to seemingly benign sources. A phisher disguises as a trustworthy entity and contacts potential victims asking them to reveal information. This could be further used for malicious intent. For example, a phisher may pose as a bank and ask for a user’s bank account credentials via e-mail. Or he could trick you to click on a fraudulent link. Phishing is a type of social engineering.
Read also: What is Digital Identity?
You hear about websites getting infected daily with malware attacks, so let’s learn more about this hacking terminology.
Malware is a software program designed by hackers to hijack computer systems or steal sensitive information from a device. These go by various names like viruses, adware, spyware, keyloggers, etc. A malware program can get transferred to a system via various means like USB, hard drive, or spam.
For instance, a recent malware functioned by redirecting both Opencart and Magento desktop and mobile websites to malicious links. This essentially leads toa loss of customers, reputation and most importantly bad impact on search engine rankings.
One of the most searched hacking terminology of 2017.Ransomware is a form of malware which locks a user out of his own system and cuts access to his/her files. A ransommessage is displayed that instructs how much and where to send payment, usually requested in bitcoin, in order to get your files back. Such attacks affect not only individuals but banks, hospitals, and online businesses. A very recent example of such ransomware is the Petya ransomware attack which recently took the businesses worldwide by a storm.
E-mail and IP spoofing are few common hack techniques encountered by users worldwide. E-mail spoofing involves altering the header of an e-mail to make it look legit. For instance, a black hat hacker can make an e-mail look as if it has appeared from your bank or any other source you may trust. On the other hand, IP spoofing refers to an illegitimate packet sent to a computer with an altered IP appearing to be a trusted host. This is carried out with the hope that the packet would be accepted that will allow the sender access to the target machine.
Encryption is a process of encoding a message or information to make it unreadable and secretive. This ensures that the concerned information is concealed only to the authorized parties. Often, encryption is employed by hackers to extort money by unleashing ransomware on computer systems, thus locking out victims and encrypting their files. The decryption key is provided only when a certain ransom is paid.
Adware is typically a software which acts as spyware to track a user’s browsing activities covertly. It then generates advertisements based on the user’s browsing history. Some adware is maliciously designed to pop up ads with a frequency ultimately slowing down your system. It can collect your personal information, browsing history, and provide inputs for further phishing attacks. This hacking terminology is common in the marketing world. Google shows a warning when visitors visit such a deceptive website because of Social engineering content.
7. Zero Day threat
A zero-day threat refers to a threat which is undocumented and hence hidden from any antivirus scanner installed on the system. This kind of flaw is inherent in anti-virus scanners, making it oblivious to developers who built antivirus functionalities based on knowledge of these vulnerabilities. Such vulnerabilities are exploited through different vectors, popularly web browsers, and malicious attachments via e-mails.
8. Brute Force Attack
Another commonlyhacking terminology to get bypass the login pages. Brute Force, aka Exhaustive key search, is a trial and error method to decrypt data such as passwords,Data Encryption Standard (DES) keys, or other encrypted information. This method is widely used to crack passwords to admin accounts, which in turn can be used to steal information and documents of paramount importance.
Highly searched hacking terminology of 2018 when Google Chrome announced that it will give warning to users who are visiting HTTP using websites. HTTPS, which stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol with the “S” for “Secure”, is a basic framework that controls how data is transferred across the web. This protocol adds alayer of encryption to provide you with secure daily browsing—your bank, your email provider, and social network. SSL and TLS are protocols used by HTTPS to provide an added identity proof to your website. It is advised to avoid browsing the website using HTTP and enter any passwords or credit card detail on it.
A bot is a software robot that runs automated tasks (scripts) over the Internet. Many search engines like Google and Bing employ bots, also called spiders, to scan websites and index them for purpose of ranking them according to returns on search queries. But when these bots are used by hackers, they can be programmed to perform malicious tasks, as well as introduce malware into the system. Learn more about bad bots.
A botnet refers to a network of bots controlled by a black hat. Applications of botnets include the launch of DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service), steal data,send spam, and allow the attacker access to the device and its connection. A swarm of botnets not only help cover the black hat’s tracks but raise the intensity of the attack by attacking in a coordinated effort.
12.Distributed Denial of Service Attack (DDOS)
This hacking terminology is highly common among hackers and is a major concern for website owners and developers. ADDoS attack is carried out with the aid of zombies or botnets controlled by black hats. By programming the botnets, the black hats command them to send data packets to the targeted web server from multiple systems. This floods the target server thereby slowing down or even crashing and shutting down the server thereby disrupting any activity. All the while the user of the server is oblivious to the attack.
Some of the most notoriously known attacks discovered lately were the Rio Olympics DDoS which lasted for months,Russian banks Sberbank and Alfabank which were attacked by a botnet consisting of at least 24,000 computers located in over 30 countries, and the US presidential elections campaign attacks.
Afirewallis a network security system, which continuously monitors incoming and outgoing network traffic, and blocks out any untrusted sources to ensure safe communications. A firewall can be both hardware and software-based.A well designed and implemented firewall continuously monitors for malicious inputs, however, black hats strive to circumvent them. As a result, firewalls are continuously being updated, adjusted, or replaced with new security measures over time.
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Essentially, a payload is a cargo of transmitted data over a network. However, in black hat hacking terminology, a payload refers to the part of the virus that performs malicious actions, such as compromising data, destroy information, or hijacking the computer system.
15. White hat
While black hat hackers are notoriously known for performing destructive activities online, white hat hackers are ethical hackers who use their skills to expose loopholes in security measures for organizations/companies before black hats exploit them.
Rootkits are one of the scariest methods to perform a cyber intrusion mostly because it goes undetected. Give a black hat a rootkit and he would perform the perfect heist.A rootkit is a malware program which can be installed on a system through various means. Just like a virus, a rootkit can be injected via e-mails, unauthenticated websites, infected hard drives, etc. Once injected, a black hat can exploit unhindered access to remote applications as per his/her need. What makes it even more lethal is its ability to function at the low system level so as to erase its tracks and go undetected for a long time. Once introduced into a system, its activity is extremely hard to detect even by skilled IT security professionals. It’s like the holy grail of hacking.
Remote Access Tool or Remote Access Trojan (RAT) is a form of malware which can be operated by even an unskilled hacker. Once a RAT is installed on your system, the attacker gains complete control of the system. While RAT can be used for legitimate purposes, like when a user wants to access his home computer from another location, it is largely used for illegitimate reasons.
This hacking terminology is commonly associated with e-mails. Spam is unsolicited emails, often used to spread advertisements via e-mails. Often, spammers collect a huge database of e-mails and randomly send them emails to promote products. However, spams can also be used to introduce malware into systems through phishing or directing to unauthenticated websites. The best practice is to delete spam as soon as you receive one, or make use of a spam filter.
Similar to a virus, a wormis a destructive self-contained program which can self-replicate. A worm doesn’t need to be a part of a program, but instead, it can transfer itself to multiple systems on a network without user intervention. A self-replicating worm can consume hordes of memory and bandwidth while drastically reducing the speed of your system. If not removed timely, it can become devastating.
Hackers often use Cloaking topresent different content or URLs to human users and search engines, thereby cloaking them under legitimate-looking web material. Hackers use dynamic scripts and .htaccess rules to hide their tracks by returninga 404 or 500 error code to certain IP addresses or browsers while serving spam to other IP addresses or browsers. Google generally suspend your ads if they notice cloaking on your website. Check our detailed blog on how to reactivate disapproved ads.
On top of these, you should also be well versed with some tricks and practices to safeguard your data privacy. These 10 Tips to Protect Your Digital Privacy in 2022 may come in handy.
Quick Security and Hack Removal Guides
- Prestashop Security Guide
- Magento Security Guide
- OpenCart Security Guide
- WordPress Security Guide
- Joomla Security Guide
- Penetration Testing Guide
- WordPress Malware Removal
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Tags: antivirus, Botnets, DDOS, encryption, Malware Injection, Phishing, spam, spam prevention, spoofing
A hacker's favorite word is “password” because in spite of all the sophisticated malware tools and tricks available to most hackers, most have to do little more than try a few of the most common and predictable passwords people use to get in.What is a hacker's favorite word? ›
A hacker's favorite word is “password” because in spite of all the sophisticated malware tools and tricks available to most hackers, most have to do little more than try a few of the most common and predictable passwords people use to get in.What is the hack jargon? ›
Hacker jargon refers to the terms used by different subcultures of computer hackers and programmers. This special vocabulary helps hackers hold places in the hacker community, express communal values and share experiences. Those who do not know the hacker jargon or slang are considered outsiders.How many types of hacking are used in cyber crime name them? ›
Hackers fall into three general categories: black hat hackers, white hat hackers, and gray hat hackers. Although hackers are often associated with exploiting vulnerabilities to gain unauthorized access to computers, systems, or networks, not all hacking is malicious or illegal.What are the 5 C's of cyber security? ›
The five C's of cyber security are five areas that are of significant importance to all organizations. They are change, compliance, cost, continuity, and coverage.What are the 10 domains of cyber security? ›
- Security Management Practices;
- Access Control Systems and Methodology;
- Telecommunications and Networking Security;
- Security Architecture and Models;
- Operations Security;
- Application and Systems Development Security;
- Physical Security;
- White Hat / Ethical Hackers.
- Black Hat Hackers.
- Gray Hat Hackers.
- Script Kiddies.
- Green Hat Hackers.
- Blue Hat Hackers.
- Red Hat Hackers.
- State/Nation Sponsored Hackers.
Select a combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols for your passwords. Never use common passwords like “123456,” “password,” or “qwerty.” Make sure your passwords are at least eight characters long. Passwords with more characters and symbols are more difficult to guess.What is Anonymous hackers motto? ›
Members commonly use the tagline "We are Anonymous. We are Legion. We do not forgive. We do not forget.What is the most common hack? ›
Phishing is the most common hacking technique. All of our inboxes and text messaging apps are filled with phishing messages daily.
Blackhat. Blackhats are malicious hackers, out to infiltrate computer systems. They're in it for personal gain, looking for sensitive information, or to damage something.What do you call a fake hacker? ›
A phisher disguises as a trustworthy entity and contacts potential victims asking them to reveal information. This could be further used for malicious intent. For example, a phisher may pose as a bank and ask for a user's bank account credentials via e-mail. Or he could trick you to click on a fraudulent link.What methods do hackers use to hack? ›
- Social Engineering & Phishing. ...
- Malware-Injecting Devices. ...
- Missing Security Patches. ...
- Cracking Passwords. ...
- Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDOS)
Some of the most famous hacking tools in the market are Nmap (Network Mapper), Nessus, Nikto, Kismet, NetStumbler, Acunetix, Netsparker, and Intruder, Nmap, Metasploit, Aircrack-Ng, etc.What are some examples of hacking list 4? ›
Examples of hacks can be deploying virus and malicious code, man-in-the-middle attacks, DDoS, DoS, phishing, ransomware, etc.What are the 3 A's of cyber security? ›
Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) is a three-process framework used to manage user access, enforce user policies and privileges, and measure the consumption of network resources.What are the 4 Ps of cyber security? ›
In general, Information Security professionals suggest that protecting sensitive data requires a combination of people, processes, polices, and technologies.What are the 6 Ds of cyber security? ›
In this article, we will discuss the 6 D's of cyber security and how you can implement them in your own cyber-defense strategy — Deter, Detect, Defend, Deflect, Document, and Delay. Creating a holistic approach to your cyber-security plan using these six references can drastically reduce your organization's risk.What are the 7 domains of cyber security? ›
They are as follows: User Domain, Workstation Domain, LAN Domain, LAN-to-WAN Domain, Remote Access Domain, WAN Domain, and System/Application Domain. Each of these domains is viewed as portals for attackers if countermeasures are missing or fail.What are the 11 domains? ›
The 11 domains included in this list are: race or ethnic group, education, financial-resource strain, stress, depression, physical activity, tobacco use, alcohol use, social connection or isolation, intimate-partner violence, and neighborhood income.
- Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attacks.
- Identity-Based Attacks.
- Code Injection Attacks.
- Supply Chain Attacks.
- Insider Threats.
Yellow hat hackers focus on social media. They often have malicious intent and attempt to hack or steal Facebook, Twitter or other social media accounts. These actions are illegal.What is Red hat hacker? ›
A hacker who acts as a digital activist or a vigilante and uses their hacking knowledge to convey a message. Their reasons for hacking might be political, social, religious, or ideological.What is the top 1 hacker? ›
Kevin Mitnick holds the title as the world's most famous hacker ever, with this title dating back to 1995 by the US Department of Justice. Kevin Mitnick started hacking at an early age.What are the 20 most commonly used passwords? ›
Thus, they remain the worst passwords you can set for your online accounts. Examples of ill-conceived passwords include 123456, password, and qwerty, which is the set of the first 6 alphabets on a laptop or smartphone keyboard. Some other styles of similar patterned passwords include 123456789, 111111, and 1q2w3e.What is a hacker symbol? ›
Eric S. Raymond has proposed the glider as an emblem to represent the hacker subculture, as the Game of Life appeals to hackers, and the concept of the glider was "born at almost the same time as the Internet and Unix". The emblem is in use in various places within the subculture.What is a happy hacker? ›
“Happy hacker” is a term that can be used to describe a horse rider who is usually not focused on competing in a particular discipline, but is taking part for leisure purposes and enjoys hacking as their main activity rather than riding in an arena.What is hacker 101? ›
Hacker101 is a free class for web security. Whether you're a programmer with an interest in bug bounties or a seasoned security professional, Hacker101 has something to teach you. Learn to hack with our free video lessons, guides, and resources, plus join the Discord community and chat with thousands of other learners.
Online privacy experts say Facebook, Instagram and Spotify are the most commonly hacked account types in the United States. Hackers use leaked credentials to break into accounts or steal login details via phishing emails.What is the most hacked platform? ›
According to a 2017 study on more than 34,000 websites and subsequently published on the Hacked Website Report 2018 by Sucuri – a subsidiary of Go Daddy Operating Company – WordPress accounted for 83% of compromised CMS platforms.
In it's latest tests, Consumer Reports found five home security systems were susceptible to these types of attacks: Adobe Iota, Cove Home Security, Eufy 5-Piece Home Alarm Kit, Ring Alarm, and SimpliSafe the Essentials.What is the enemy called in cyber security? ›
In cybersecurity, this 'enemy' is called the threat actor. We can define a threat actor as person, group, or entity that creates all or part of an incident with the aim to impact an organization's security.What is cybersecurity in one word? ›
According to Gartner's Information Technology terms glossary, cybersecurity (spelled as one word) refers to the systems, technologies, processes, governing policies and human activity that an organization uses to safeguard its digital assets.What is another name for malicious hacker? ›
Black hat hackers are malicious hackers, sometimes called crackers. Black hats lack ethics, sometimes violate laws, and break into computer systems with malicious intent, and they may violate the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of an organization's systems and data.How does BlackEye work? ›
BlackEye is a tool to rapidly generate phishing pages that target social media websites, making it much easier to phish targets of opportunity on the same network. After redirecting a target to the phishing page, it's easy to capture passwords to social media accounts harvested from unwitting targets.How do hackers clone email address? ›
Clone phishing is a type of phishing attack where the hacker copies a legitimate email message that is sent from a trusted organization. The hacker alters the email by replacing or adding a link that redirects to a malicious and fake website.How many ways can you hack data illegally? ›
- Malware. One of the most well-known data theft attack methods in existence is malware. ...
- Compromised Passwords. ...
- Unsecured Internet Connections. ...
- Ransomware. ...
- Phishing and Social Engineering.
Phishing is one of the most common ways that hackers gain access to other people's login data. Phishing emails often contain links that lead to fake websites designed to trick you into entering your password.
- Rootkits. Special software that allows a hacker to gain remote access to a victim's computer. ...
- Keyloggers. Software designed to eavesdrop on the victim's computer, recording every keystroke the user does. ...
- Vulnerability scanners. ...
- Worm, Virus & Trojan. ...
- John the Ripper.
What are Hacking Tools? Hacking Tools are computer programs and scripts that help you find and exploit weaknesses in computer systems, web applications, servers and networks. There are a variety of such tools available in the market. Users can easily download hack tools for ethical hacking.Which hacking method uses network monitoring devices? ›
Sniffing is the process of monitoring and capturing all the packets passing through a given network using sniffing tools. It is a form of “tapping phone wires” and get to know about the conversation. It is also called wiretapping applied to the computer networks.What are the 5 phases of hacking? ›
- Reconnaissance. Reconnaissance, also known as the preparatory phase, is where the hacker gathers information about a target before launching an attack and is completed in phases prior to exploiting system vulnerabilities. ...
- Scanning. ...
- Gain Access. ...
- Maintain Access. ...
- Cover Tracks.
The key difference between spoofing and hacking comes down to this: “If your device is compromised, that would be considered your device has been hacked — if it's your identity that has been compromised, you've been spoofed or impersonated,” said Kulm.What are the three key elements of cybersecurity? ›
The CIA triad refers to an information security model made up of the three main components: confidentiality, integrity and availability. Each component represents a fundamental objective of information security.What are the three C's of cyber security? ›
The 3Cs of Best Security: Comprehensive, Consolidated, and Collaborative - Check Point Blog.What are the 6 cybersecurity concepts? ›
NIST said that all cybersecurity professionals should master these six knowledge realms: computer networking concepts and protocols; risk management processes; laws, regulations, policies and ethics; privacy and security principles; threats and vulnerabilities; and specific impacts any security lapses can cause.What are the names of the 5 key security principles? ›
The U.S. Department of Defense has promulgated the Five Pillars of Information Assurance model that includes the protection of confidentiality, integrity, availability, authenticity, and non-repudiation of user data.
- Device Protection. With the rise in cyber threats, individuals and companies should prioritize device protection. ...
- Securing Online Connection. ...
- Securing Email Communication. ...
- Protecting and Performing Timely Backups of Files and Documents.
- Keep software up-to-date.
- Avoid opening suspicious emails.
- Use Antivirus and Antimalware software on the electronic devices.
- Use a security file-sharing solution to encrypt data.
- Use strong passwords.
- Backup your data.
- Be cautious of phishing scams.
Tier 3 – Threat Hunting
Threat Hunting is the third level of the SOC. Tier 3 personnel are responsible for proactively hunting for threats and vulnerabilities in an organization's environment. This includes analyzing logs, network traffic and other data sources to identify potential threats and vulnerabilities.
- Mission-Critical Assets. This is data that is absolutely critical to protect. ...
- Data Security. ...
- Endpoint Security. ...
- Application Security. ...
- Network Security. ...
- Perimeter Security. ...
- The Human Layer.
- Network Security. Most attacks occur over the network, and network security solutions are designed to identify and block these attacks. ...
- Cloud Security. ...
- Endpoint Security. ...
- Mobile Security. ...
- IoT Security. ...
- Application Security. ...
- Zero Trust.
- Asset Management & Identification.
- Risk Management.
- Access Management.
- Threat Management.
- Security Controls.
- Disaster Recovery & Business Continuity.
- Incident Management.
- Security Education, Training, and Awareness.
- Recognise and report scams.
- Set secure passphrases.
- Set up and perform regular backups.
- Turn on multi-factor authentication.
- Update your devices.
- Watch out for threats.